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APA uses in-text citations and a reference list at the end.
In-text citations include the author’s last name and the year of publication in parentheses, i.e.: (Tolkien, 1981).
You can also use the author’s name in your own text, in which case you only need to use the date in the parentheses, i.e.:
According to Tolkien (1981), certain aspects of truth are best received through myth, or story.
If you use a direct quotation, you must include a page number:
“I believe that legends and myths are largely made of 'truth', and indeed present aspects of it that can only be received in this mode” (Tolkien, 1981, p. 147).
Multiple authors in a parenthetical citation are connected by an ampersand (and for multiple authors with the same last name, include a first initial):
“Tolkien experienced words as a maddening liquor, a phonic ambrosia, tastes of an exquisite, rapturous, higher world” (P. Zaleski & C. Zaleski, 2015, p. 24).
Capitalize all major words in newspaper, magazine, and journal names.
For books, chapters, articles, or web pages, only capitalize the first letter and the first letter after a colon or a dash (i.e. the first letter of a subtitle), and any proper noun.
Author, F. M. (Publication year). Title of book: Subtitle. Publisher. https://doi.org/XX.XXXX/XXXX or URL (if available)
Tolkien, J. R. (1955). The return of the king. George Allen & Unwin.
Book with Editor(s) or Translator(s):
Author, F. M. (Publication year). Title of book: Subtitle. F. M. Editor (Ed.). Publisher. https://doi.org/XX.XXXX/XXXX or URL (if available)
Tolkien, J. R. (2013). The letters of J.R.R. Tolkien. H. Carpenter (Ed.). Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Note: if the books has a translator, place the translator’s name in the same spot and the same format as the editor, with (trans.) after it. If the book has no author other than the editor, use the editor’s name like an author’s name (at the start of the citation), with (Ed.) after it.
Author, F. M. (Publication year). Title of book. Publisher name. https://doi.org/XX.XXXX/XXXX or URL (if available)
Duriez, C. (2015). Bedeviled : Lewis, Tolkien and the Shadow of Evil. IVP Books. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com
Book Chapter/Section from Anthology:
Author, F. M. (Publication year). Chapter title. In F. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. #-#). Publisher. https://doi.org/XX.XXXX/XXXX or URL (if available)
Lewin, K. (1999). Group decision and social change. In M. Gold (Ed.). The complete social scientist: A Kurt Lewin reader (pp. 265-284). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/10319-010
Author, F. M. (Publication year). Article title. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), #-#.
Hirsch, B. (2014). After the “end of all things”: The long return home to the Shire. Tolkien Studies, 11(11), 77-107.
Online Journal with DOI:
Author, F. M. (Publication year). Article title. Title of Journal, Volume(Issue), #-#. https://doi.org/XX.XXXX/XXXX
Munro, R. (2014). The art of the Lord of the Rings: A defense of the aesthetic. Religion & the Arts, 18(5), 636-652. https://doi.org/10.1163/15685292-01805002
Online Newspaper Article:
Author, F. M. (Year, Month day of publication). Specific webpage or article title. Newspaper Website. URL
Miller, B. (2020, August 28). How 'survivorship bias' can cause you to make mistakes. BBC. https://www.bbc.com/worklife/article/20200827-how-survivorship-bias-can-cause-you-to-make-mistakes
Note: if no date information is available, use (n.d.).
Webpage on website with a group author:
Group Name. (Year, Month day). Specific webpage name. URL
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2014). What is the Healthy People 2030 framework? https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/About-Healthy-People/Development-Healthy-People-2030/Framework
Note: if no date information is available, use (n.d.).
Clip Art or Stock Image:
Creator, F. M. (Year). Title of Image [format]. Source. URL
Luebbert, D. W. (Artist). (2012, April 15). Tolkien Daydreams [Digital Image]. Deviant Art. http://lueb-art.deviantart.com/art/Tolkien-Daydreams-296027561
Author, F. M. [@Handle]. (Year, Month Day of publication). Entire tweet [Tweet]. Twitter. URL
Olsen, C. [@Olsen]. (2015, August 8). I've come to the part of @JohnGarthWriter's book where Tolkien's friends are just about to die. V moving and painful. #whatimreading [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/tolkienprof/status/630126084139393024.
YouTube Video or Other Streaming Video:
Author, F. M. [YouTube handle]. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video]. YouTube. URL
Grey, C. G. [CGP Grey]. (2014, December 17). The Lord of the Rings mythology explained (part 1) [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YxgsxaFWWHQ.
Note: if the poster's real name is not available, use their YouTube handle instead, without brackets.
An interview is not considered a recoverable source, so it is not included in your APA reference list. You can cite it in your text, however, as follows:
(C. Tolkien, personal communication, August 14, 2015)
A Cochrane Review is cited similarly to an electronic journal article without volume and issue, including DOI.
Author, F. M. (Publication year). Article title. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. DOI as https://doi.org/XX.XXXX/XXXX
Arrowsmith, V.A., & Taylor R. (2014). Removal of nail polish and finger rings to prevent surgical infection. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003325.pub3.