Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Citing Sources: Chicago/Turabian Examples

A quick guide to citations and RefWorks, the citation manager.

Online Chicago Manual of Style

Image result for chicago manual

Click here to access the complete, up-to-date Chicago Manual of Style Online!

Purdue OWL

Have a question that this page didn't answer? The Purdue OWL (Online Writing Lab) is the best resource on the internet for citation guidelines.

Catch a mistake?

Librarians are human too! If you see a problem with this guide, let me know by contacting me via the info below.

Librarian

Anthony Tardiff's picture
Anthony Tardiff

Chicago Basics

Chicago/Turabian Basics

The Chicago style has two methods: author-date, and footnotes or endnotes.

These examples cover the footnotes/endnotes method. Footnotes appear at the bottom of a page, and endnotes appear at the end of a paper or section. Full citation information is included in the notes, and each source is also included in a bibliography, alphabetized by author.


Footnotes/Endnotes

The first footnote for each source should include the full citation:

1. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Humphrey Carpenter (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013), 100.

Every subsequent note for that source only needs to include the author's last name, the title (shortened version if the title is more than four words), and the page number:

3. Tolkien, Letters, 100.

If you cite the same source multiple times in a row, use "Ibid." to designate that it is the same source, followed by the page number:

4. Ibid., 102

("Ibid." is short for ibidem, Latin for "in the same place.")

Bibliography

The bibliography entry looks similar to the complete form of the footnote citation, but uses no parentheses. It also places the last name of the author first for alphabetization, and separates all elements by periods. Specific page number is omitted.

Tolkien, J.R.R. The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien. Edited by Humphrey Carpenter. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013.


Examples

Printed Book:

Notes:

1. Firstname Lastname, Title (City: Publisher, date), page number.

1. Joseph Pearce, Man and Myth: A Literary Life (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2001), 56.

Bibliography:

Pearce, Joseph. Man and Myth: A Literary Life. San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2001.

Book with editor or translator:

Notes

1. Firstname Lastname, Title, ed. Firstname Lastname (City: Publisher, date), page number.

1. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, ed. Humphrey Carpenter (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013), 100-102.

Bibliography

Tolkien, J.R.R. The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien. Edited by Humphrey Carpenter. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013.

Note: if the books has a translator, follow the same form as for an editor. Use the abbreviation Trans. instead of Ed.

Book with editor or translator and no author:

Notes

1. Firstname Lastname, ed., Title (City: Publisher, date), page numbers.

1. Janice M. Bogstad and Philip E. Kaveny, eds., Picturing Tolkien: Essays on Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings Film Trilogy (London: McFarland & Company, 2011), 98-103.

Bibliography

Bogstad, Janice M and Philip E. Kaverny, eds. Picturing Tolkien: Essays on Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings Film Trilogy. London: McFarland & Company, 2011.

Note: if the books has a translator, follow the same form as for an editor. Use the abbreviation Trans. instead of Ed.

E‐Book:

Note: cite an ebook the way you would cite a print book, but include the type of file at the end, i.e. Kindle edition, PDF ebook. If you accessed it on a webpage instead of in a file, use the page's URL instead of the file type.

Notes

1. Mark Atherton, There and Back Again: J.R.R. Tolkien and the Origins of The Hobbit (London: I.B. Tauris, 2012), PDF ebook, 56.

Bibliography

Atherton, Mark. There and Back Again: J.R.R. Tolkien and the Origins of The Hobbit. London: I.B. Tauris, 2012. PDF ebook.

Book Chapter/Article from Anthology:

Notes

5. Firstname Lastname, "Chapter/Article Title," in Book Title, ed. Firstname Lastname (City: Publisher, Year), page number.

5. George MacDonald, "The Golden Key," in Tales Before Tolkien: The Roots of Modern Fantasy, ed. Douglas A. Anderson (New York: Ballantine, 2003), 29.

Bibliography

MacDonald, George. "The Golden Key." In Tales Before Tolkien: The Roots of Modern Fantasy, edited by Douglas A. Anderson, 27-57. New York: Ballantine, 2003.

Note: include the page range of the chapter or article in the bibliography.

Print Journal

Notes

9. Firstname Lastname, "Article Title," Journal Title Volume, no. issue (year): page cited.

9. Bernhard Hirsch, "After the 'End of All Things': The Long Return Home to the Shire," Tolkien Studies 11, no. 11 (2014): 81.

Bibliography

Hirsch, Bernhard. "After the 'End of All Things': The Long Return Home to the Shire." Tolkien Studies 11, no. 11 (2014): 77-107.

Note: include the page number range in the bibliography.

Online Journal (i.e. from a database):

Notes

14. Firstname Lastname, "Article Title," Journal Title Volume, no. issue  (year): page cited, URL or DOI.

14. Rebecca Munro, "The Art of The Lord of the Rings: A Defense of the Aesthetic," Religion & the Arts 18, no. 5 (12, 2014): 641, doi:10.1163/15685292-01805002.

Bibliography

Munro, Rebecca. "The Art of the Lord of the Rings: A Defense of the Aesthetic." Religion & the Arts 18, no. 5 (12, 2014): 636-652. doi:10.1163/15685292-01805002

Website:

Notes

11. Firstname Lastname, “Title of Page,” Name of Website, last modified Date (if known), URL.

11. David Doughan, "Biography," The Tolkien Society, http://www.tolkiensociety.org/author/biography.

Bibliography

Doughan, David. "Biography." The Tolkien Society. http://www.tolkiensociety.org/author/biography.

Note: if no date information is available, omit it.

Website with no evident author:

Notes

17. “Title of Page,” Name of Website, last modified Date (if known), URL.

17. "Bridge of Khazad-dûm," Tolkien Gateway, last modified November 15, 2014, http://tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Bridge_of_Khazad-dum.

Bibliography

"Bridge of Khazad-dûm.Tolkien Gateway. Last modified November 15, 2014. http://tolkiengateway.net/wiki/Bridge_of_Khazad-dum

Note: if no date information is available, omit it.

Online Newspaper or Magazine Article:

Notes

6. Firstname Lastname, "Article Title," Newspaper or Magazine Title, date, URL.

6. Lawrence Downes, "An Unexpected Journey: Hobbits in the Heartland," The New York Times, December 8, 2012, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/09/opinion/sunday/hobbits-in-the-heartland.html.

Bibliography

Downes, Lawrence . "An Unexpected Journey: Hobbits in the Heartland." The New York Times. December 8, 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/09/opinion/sunday/hobbits-in-the-heartland.html.​

Classroom Lecture Notes:

Notes

Professor's Name, "Title of Lecture" (lecture, School Name, City, ST, date).

Michael Tkacz, "The Cosmological Argument" (lecture, Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA, November 27, 2015.

Bibliography

Tkacz, Michael. "The Cosmological Argument." Lecture, Gonzaga University, Spokane, WA, November 27, 2015.

Tweet:

Notes

9. Author, Twitter post, date, time, URL.

9. Corey Olsen, Twitter post, August 8, 2015, 2:19 a.m., https://twitter.com/tolkienprof/status/630126084139393024.

Bibliography

Olsen, Corey. Twitter post. August 8, 2015, 2:19 a.m. https://twitter.com/tolkienprof/status/630126084139393024.

YouTube Video:

Notes

19. Poster's name (or username if name isn't known), "Video Title," YouTube video, running time, posting date, URL.

19. CGP Grey. "The Lord of the Rings Mythology Explained (Part 1)," YouTube video, 4:45, December 17, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YxgsxaFWWHQ.

Bibliography

Grey, Colin Gregory Palmer. "The Lord of the Rings Mythology Explained (Part 1)." YouTube video, 4:45, December 17, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YxgsxaFWWHQ.

Personal Interview:

Note: don't cite personal communications in the bibliography.

Notes

14. Interviewee Name, interview by Interviewer Name, date.

14. Christopher Tolkien, interview by Arnold Moose, August 14, 2015.

History Department Style Guide

This style guide created by Dr. Kevin O’Connor of the History department contains information about Chicago/Turabian, and also information on types of assignments, types of sources, how to craft a paper well, and many other useful tips.

Accessibility | Proxy Logout